Create a new web application

new_app()

Value

A new webfakes_app.

Details

The typical workflow of creating a web application is:

  1. Create a webfakes_app object with new_app().

  2. Add middleware and/or routes to it.

  3. Start is with the webfakes_app$listen() method, or start it in another process with new_app_process().

  4. Make queries to the web app.

  5. Stop it via CTRL+C / ESC, or, if it is running in another process, with the $stop() method of new_app_process().

A web application can be

  • restarted,

  • saved to disk,

  • copied to another process using the callr package, or a similar way,

  • embedded into a package,

  • extended by simply adding new routes and/or middleware.

The webfakes API is very much influenced by the express.js project.

Create web app objects

new_app()

new_app() returns a webfakes_app object the has the methods listed on this page.

An app is an environment with S3 class webfakes_app.

The handler stack

An app has a stack of handlers. Each handler can be a route or middleware. The differences between the two are:

  • A route is bound to one or more paths on the web server. Middleware is not (currently) bound to paths, but run for all paths.

  • A route is usually (but not always) the end of the handler stack for a request. I.e. a route takes care of sending out the response to the request. Middleware typically performs some action on the request or the response, and then the next handler in the stack is invoked.

Routes

The following methods define routes. Each method corresponds to the HTTP verb with the same name, except for app$all(), which creates a route for all HTTP methods.

app$all(path, ...)
app$delete(path, ...)
app$get(path, ...)
app$head(path, ...)
app$patch(path, ...)
app$post(path, ...)
app$put(path, ...)
... (see list below)

  • path is a path specification, see 'Path specification' below.

  • ... is one or more handler functions. These will be placed in the handler stack, and called if they match an incoming HTTP request. See 'Handler functions' below.

webfakes also has methods for the less frequently used HTTP verbs: CONNECT, MKCOL, OPTIONS, PROPFIND, REPORT. (The method names are always in lowercase.)

If a request is not handled by any routes (or handler functions in general), then webfakes will send a simple HTTP 404 response.

Middleware

app$use() adds a middleware to the handler stack. A middleware is a handler function, see 'Handler functions' below. webfakes comes with middleware to perform common tasks:

app$use(..., .first = FALSE)

  • ... is a set of (middleware) handler functions. They are added to the handler stack, and called for every HTTP request. (Unless an HTTP response is created before reaching this point in the handler stack.)

  • .first set to TRUE is you want to add the handler function to the bottom of the stack.

Handler functions

A handler function is a route or middleware. A handler function is called by webfakes with the incoming HTTP request and the outgoing HTTP response objects (being built) as arguments. The handler function may query and modify the members of the request and/or the response object. If it returns the string "next", then it is not a terminal handler, and once it returns, webfakes will move on to call the next handler in the stack.

A typical route:

app$get("/user/:id", function(req, res) {
  id <- req$params$id
  ...
  res$
    set_status(200L)$
    set_header("X-Custom-Header", "foobar")$
    send_json(response, auto_unbox = TRUE)
})

  • The handler belongs to an API path, which is a wildcard path in this case. It matches /user/alice, /user/bob, etc. The handler will be only called for GET methods and matching API paths.

  • The handler receives the request (req) and the response (res).

  • It sets the HTTP status, additional headers, and sends the data. (In this case the webfakes_response$send_json() method automatically converts response to JSON and sets the Content-Type and Content-Length headers.

  • This is a terminal handler, because it does not return "next". Once this handler function returns, webfakes will send out the HTTP response.

A typical middleware:

app$use(function(req, res) {
  ...
  "next"
})

  • There is no HTTP method and API path here, webfakes will call the handler for each HTTP request.

  • This is not a terminal handler, it does return "next", so after it returns webfakes will look for the next handler in the stack.

Errors

If a handler function throws an error, then the web server will return a HTTP 500 text/plain response, with the error message as the response body.

Request and response objects

See webfakes_request and webfakes_response for the methods of the request and response objects.

Path specification

Routes are associated with one or more API paths. A path specification can be

  • A "plain" (i.e. without parameters) string. (E.g. "/list".)

  • A parameterized string. (E.g. "/user/:id".)

  • A regular expression created via new_regexp() function.

  • A list or character vector of the previous ones. (Regular expressions must be in a list.)

Path parameters

Paths that are specified as parameterized strings or regular expressions can have parameters.

For parameterized strings the keys may contain letters, numbers and underscores. When webfakes matches an API path to a handler with a parameterized string path, the parameters will be added to the request, as params. I.e. in the handler function (and subsequent handler functions, if the current one is not terminal), they are available in the req$params list.

For regular expressions, capture groups are also added as parameters. It is best to use named capture groups, so that the parameters are in a named list.

If the path of the handler is a list of parameterized strings or regular expressions, the parameters are set according to the first matching one.

Templates

webfakes supports templates, using any template engine. It comes with a template engine that uses the glue package, see tmpl_glue().

app$engine() registers a template engine, for a certain file extension. The $render() method of webfakes_response can be called from the handler function to evaluate a template from a file.

app$engine(ext, engine)

  • ext: the file extension for which the template engine is added. It should not contain the dot. E.g. "html"', "brew"`.

  • engine: the template engine, a function that takes the file path (path) of the template, and a list of local variables (locals) that can be used in the template. It should return the result.

An example template engine that uses glue might look like this:

app$engine("txt", function(path, locals) {
  txt <- readChar(path, nchars = file.size(path), useBytes = TRUE)
  glue::glue_data(locals, txt)
})

(The built-in tmpl_glue() engine has more features.)

This template engine can be used in a handler:

app$get("/view", function(req, res) {
 txt <- res$render("test")
 res$
   set_type("text/plain")$
   send(txt)
})

The location of the templates can be set using the views configuration parameter, see the $set_config() method below.

In the template, the variables passed in as locals, and also the response local variables (see locals in webfakes_response), are available.

Starting and stopping

app$listen(port = NULL, opts = server_opts(), cleanup = TRUE)

  • port: port to listen on. When NULL, the operating system will automatically select a free port.

  • opts: options to the web server. See server_opts() for the list of options and their default values.

  • cleanup: stop the server (with an error) if the standard input of the process is closed. This is handy when the app runs in a callr::r_session subprocess, because it stops the app (and the subprocess) if the main process has terminated.

This method does not return, and can be interrupted with CTRL+C / ESC or a SIGINT signal. See new_app_process() for interrupting an app that is running in another process.

When port is NULL, the operating system chooses a port where the app will listen. To be able to get the port number programmatically, before the listen method blocks, it advertises the selected port in a webfakes_port condition, so one can catch it:

webfakes by default binds only to the loopback interface at 127.0.0.1, so the webfakes web app is never reachable from the network.

withCallingHandlers(
  app$listen(),
  "webfakes_port" = function(msg) print(msg$port)
)

Logging

webfakes can write an access log that contains an entry for all incoming requests, and also an error log for the errors that happen while the server is running. This is the default behavior for local app (the ones started by app$listen() and for remote apps (the ones started via new_app_process():

  • Local apps do not write an access log by default.

  • Remote apps write an access log into the <tmpdir>/webfakes/<pid>/access.log file, where <tmpdir> is the session temporary directory of the main process, and <pid> is the process id of the subprocess.

  • Local apps write an error log to <tmpdir>/webfakes/error.log, where <tmpdir> is the session temporary directory of the current process.

  • Remote app write an error log to the <tmpdir>/webfakes/<pid>/error.log, where <tmpdir> is the session temporary directory of the main process and <pid> is the process id of the subprocess`.

See server_opts() for changing the default logging behavior.

Shared app data

app$locals

It is often useful to share data between handlers and requests in an app. app$locals is an environment that supports this. E.g. a middleware that counts the number of requests can be implemented as:

app$use(function(req, res) {
  locals <- req$app$locals
  if (is.null(locals$num)) locals$num <- 0L
  locals$num <- locals$num + 1L
  "next"
})

webfakes_response objects also have a locals environment, that is initially populated as a copy of app$locals.

Configuration

app$get_config(key)
app$set_config(key, value)

  • key: configuration key.

  • value: configuration value.

Currently used configuration values:

  • views: path where webfakes searches for templates.

See also

webfakes_request for request objects, webfakes_response for response objects.

Examples

# see example web apps in the `/examples` directory in system.file(package = "webfakes", "examples")
#> [1] "/Users/runner/work/_temp/Library/webfakes/examples"
app <- new_app() app$use(mw_log()) app$get("/hello", function(req, res) { res$send("Hello there!") }) app$get(new_regexp("^/hi(/.*)?$"), function(req, res) { res$send("Hi indeed!") }) app$post("/hello", function(req, res) { res$send("Got it, thanks!") }) app
#> <webfakes_app> #> routes: #> use * #> get /hello #> get <webfakes_regexp> "^/hi(/.*)?$" #> post /hello #> fields and methods: #> all(path, ...) # add route for *all* HTTP methods #> delete(path, ...) # add route for DELETE #> engine(ext, engine) # add template engine for file extension #> head(path, ...) # add route for HEAD #> listen(port) # start web app on port #> patch(path, ...) # add route for PATCH #> post(path, ...) # add route for POST #> put(path, ...) # add route for PUT #> use(...) # add middleware #> locals # app-wide shared data #> # see ?webfakes_app for all methods
# Start the app with: app$listen() # Or start it in another R session: new_app_process(app)